Human Uniqueness, Cognition by Description, and Procedural Memory


  • John Bolender Middle East Tech. U.
  • Burak Erdeniz Middle East Technical University
  • Cemil Kerimo?lu International Max Planck Research School


basal ganglia, cerebellum, cognition by description, knowledge by description, language evolution, procedural memory, theory of descriptions


Evidence will be reviewed suggesting a fairly direct link between the human ability to think about entities which one has never perceived — here called “cognition by description” — and procedural memory. Cognition by description is a uniquely hominid trait which makes religion, science, and history possible. It is hypothesized that cognition by description (in the manner of Bertrand Russell’s “knowledge by description”) requires variable binding, which in turn utilizes quantifier raising. Quantifier raising plausibly depends upon the computational core of language, specifically the element of it which Noam Chomsky calls “internal Merge”. Internal Merge produces hierarchical structures by means of a memory of derivational steps, a process plausibly involving procedural memory. The hypothesis is testable, predicting that procedural memory deficits will be accompanied by impairments in cognition by description. We also discuss neural mechanisms plausibly underlying procedural memory and also, by our hypothesis, cognition by description.

Author Biographies

John Bolender, Middle East Tech. U.

Assistant Professor Department of Philosophy Middle East Technical University Ankara 06531 Turkey

Burak Erdeniz, Middle East Technical University

Informatics Institute Middle East Technical University Ankara 06531 Turkey

Cemil Kerimo?lu, International Max Planck Research School

International Max Planck Research School Neurosciences Göttingen, Germany